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Carlos Cruz-Diez (1923-2019)

Carlos Cruz-Diez is one of the main protagonists of contemporary art. His research and his writings make him the last great thinker of the 20th century in the realm of color. His work has revealed a new understanding of chromatic phenomena in art, expanding its perceptual universe considerably.

Cruz-Diez proposes color as an autonomous and evolutive reality where the implication of our senses reveals chromatic events as they develop. Events that take place in space and time, without anecdotes or references, stripped of any symbols, past or future, in a continuous present. 

Works by Carlos Cruz-Diez encourage a different knowledge relationship where the viewers can discover their capacity to create and destroy color with their own perceptual means while finding an emotional resonance through their personal experience. 

Carlos Cruz-Diez describes himself as an artist applying the discipline of a scientist “because the supports that I have managed to structure are a source of surprise and imponderables… In my works, nothing is left to chance; everything is intended, planned, and programmed. Liberty and emotions are only present when choosing colors, a task with only one self-imposed restriction: to be efficient in what I want to say. It is a combination of both rationale and emotion. I don’t get inspired: I reflect.” 

Carlos Cruz-Diez’s body of work, based on three conditions of color: subtractive, additive and reflective is developed through eight lines of research: Couleur Additive, Physichromie, Induction Chromatique, Chromointerférence, Transchromie, Chromosaturation, Chromoscope and Couleur à l’Espace. Each of them responding to different behaviors of color. 

His works are in the permanent collections of prestigious institutions such as the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA), New York; Tate Modern, London; Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris; Centre Pompidou, Paris; Museum of Fine Arts, Houston; Wallraf-Richartz Museum, Cologne; Geffen Contemporary, Museum of Contemporary Art (MOCA), Los Angeles; Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Washington, D.C.; Louisiana Museum of Modern Art, Humlebæk.

Selected Solo Exhibitions

2023

L'euforia del colore, Galleria Continua, San Gimignano, IT

2022

Carlos Cruz-Diez, Environnement de Transchromie Circulaire, Venet Foundation, Le Muy, FR

Carlos Cruz-Diez, El Peso de la Forma, el diseño gráfico de Carlos Cruz-Diez, Sala Mendoza, Caracas, VE

Carlos Cruz-Diez, Chromosaturation, Pérez Art Museum Miami (PAMM), Miami, USA

The Euphoria of Color, Galleria Continua, Dubai, UAE

2021

Carlos Cruz-Diez, El peso de la forma. El diseño gráfico de Carlos Cruz-Diez, Library of Queen Sofia National Museum Art Centre, Madrid, ES

2020

Carlos Cruz-Diez, Ulsan Culture & Arts Center, Ulsan, SK

2019

Carlos Cruz-Diez. Hommage à la couleur, Galerie Denise René - Espace Marais, Paris, FR

Carlos Cruz-Diez. El color haciéndose, Museum of Contemporary Art (MAC), Panama City, PA

Carlos Cruz-Diez. Un patrimonio a perpetuar, Odalys Galería de Arte, Caracas, VE

Carlos Cruz-Diez, Didáctica y Dialéctica del color, Centro Cultural Chacao, Caracas, VE

Carlos Cruz-Diez. Labyrinthus, La Patinoire Royale - Galerie Valérie Bach, Brussels, BE

Carlos Cruz-Diez, Laberintos de color. Homenaje a Carlos Cruz-Diez, Museum of Fine Arts, Caracas, VE

2018

Carlos Cruz-Diez at the Cistern. Spatial Chromointerference, Buffalo Bayou Park Cistern, Houston, US

Carlos Cruz-Diez. Luminous Reality, Phillips, London, GB

Carlos Cruz-Diez. Color in Motion, Museum für Konkrete Kunst Ingolstadt (MKKI), Ingolstadt, DE

2017

Carlos Cruz-Diez. Mastering Colour, Puerta Roja, Hong Kong, CN

Chroma, SCAD Museum of Art, Savannah, US

2016

Carlos Cruz-Diez. Du statique au dynamique, Galerie Denise René - Espace Marais, Paris. FR

Carlos Cruz-Diez. Un être flottant, Galerie Mitterrand, Paris, FR

2015

Carlos Cruz-Diez. Didaktik und Dialektik der Farbe, Das Kleine Museum, Weissenstadt, DE

2014

Cruz-Diez en noir et blanc. Photographies de 1943 à 1975, Maison de l'Amérique latine, Paris, FR

Carlos Cruz-Diez. Circonstance et Ambiguïté de la Couleur, Fondation Vasarely, Aix-en- Provence, FR

2013

Carlos Cruz-Diez. Circumstance and Ambiguity of Color, Central Academy of Fine Arts (CAFA), Beijing, CN

2012

RVB, The Musée en Herbe, Paris, FR

Cruz-Diez. A cor no espaço e no tempo, Pinacotheca of the state of São Paulo, São Paulo, BR

Carlos Cruz-Diez. El color en el espacio y en el tiempo, University Museum Contemporary Art (MUAC), Mexico City, MX

2011

Carlos Cruz-Diez. Color in Space and Time, Museum of Fine Arts (MFAH), Houston, US

Carlos Cruz-Diez. El color en el espacio y en el tiempo, Latin American Art Museum of Buenos Aires (MALBA) - Costantini Foundation, Buenos Aires, ARG

2009

Carlos Cruz-Diez. El color sucede, Museu d’Art Espanyol Contemporani - Fundación Juan March, Palma de Mallorca, ES

Carlos Cruz-Diez. El color sucede, Museum of Spanish Abstract Art - Fundación Juan March, Cuenca, ES

2008

Carlos Cruz-Diez. (In)Formed by Color, Americas Society/Council of the Americas, New York, US

2007

Cruz-Diez. La couleur dans l'espace, Maison de l’Amérique latine, Paris, FR

1988

Carlos Cruz-Diez. Die Autonomie der Farbe. Bilders - Plastiken - Objekte aus den Jahren, 1959-1988, Josef Albers Museum Quadrat Bottrop, Moderne Galerie, Bottrop, DE

1981

Cruz-Diez. Didáctica y dialéctica del color. Intervenciones en la arquitectura. Inducciones cromáticas, Caracas Museum of Contemporary Art (MACC) - Cadafe Room - Ipostel Room, Caracas, VE

1975

Cruz-Diez. El artista y la ciudad, Exhibition hall of the Gobernación del Distrito Federal, Caracas, VE

1974

Carlos Cruz-Diez, Caracas Museum of Contemporary Art (MACC) - Cadafe Room, Caracas, VE

1970

35th Venice Biennial, Venezuelan Pavilion, Venice, IT

1969

Cruz-Diez. Cinq propositions sur la couleur, Galerie Denise René - Rue La Boétie, Paris, FR

1965

A Decade of Physichromies by Carlos Cruz-Diez, Signals London, London, GB

1960

Fisicromías de Cruz-Diez, Museum of Fine Arts, Caracas, VE

1956

Carlos Cruz-Diez, Galería Buchholz, Madrid, ES

Selected Group Exhibitions

2023

Art in Motion, Springfield Art Museum, Springfield, USA

The Dynamic Eye: Beyond Optical and Kinetic Art, Atkinson Museum, Porto, Portugal

Mouvement et Lumière, Fondation Villa Datris, Isle sur la Sorgue, France

2022

Kinetismus, 100 Years of Electricity in Art , Kunsthalle Praha, Prague, Czech Republic

Color intermitente, Museo de Artes Visuales (MAV) / Universidad Jorge Tadeo Lozano, Bogotá, Colombia

Révolution Xenakis, Philarmonie de Paris, France

Cinétique ! La sculpture en mouvement, Villa Datris/Espace Monte Cristo, Paris, France

Abstract Art Beyond the Frame au Museum of Latin American Art (MOLAA), Long Beach, California 

L'occhio in gioco. Percezione, impressioni e illusioni nell'arte dal Medioevo alla Contemporaneità, Palazzo del Monte di Pietà , Padova, Italy

Paris et nulle part ailleurs: 24 artistes étrangers à Paris de 1945 à 1972,  Musée de l'Histoire de l'Immigration (MNHI) Paris, France

Mouvement - hommage à Denise René,  Bonisson Art Center, Rognes France

The Dynamic Eye: Op and Kinetic Art From the Tate collection, Museum of Art Pudong, Shanghai, China

2021

Ways of Seeing Abstraction, Palais Populaire (Cultural Forum of the Deutsche Bank), Berlin, Germany

2020

Marion Charlet & Carlos Cruz-Diez, La Patinoire Royale - Galerie Valérie Bach, Brussels, Belgium

Sud-Est. Le constructivisme en héritage. Europe de l’Est et Amérique du Sud, Fondation Vasarely, Aix-en-Provence, France

Connecting Currents: Contemporary Art at the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston. Color into Light, Nancy and Rich Kinder building of the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, United States

The Marzio Years: Transforming the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, 1982–2010, Museum of Fine Arts (MFAH), Houston, United States

Les Extatiques, Paris La Défense, Paris, France

2019

Racing the Galaxy, Between the Palace of Independence & the Palace of Peace and Reconciliation, Nur-Sultan (Astana), Kazakhstan

La révolution permanente. Œuvres optiques et cinétiques. Collection du Centre Pompidou- Musée national d’art moderne, Fondation Vasarely, Aix-en-Provence, France

Le diable au corps. Quand l’Op Art électrise le cinéma, Musée d’Art Moderne et d’Art Contemporain (MAMAC), Nice, France

Sur Moderno. Journeys of Abstraction - The Patricia Phelps de Cisneros Gift, Museum of Modern Art (MoMA), New York, United States

Vertigo. Op Art and a History and Deception 1520-1970, Museum of Modern Art, Ludwig Foundation (MUMOK), Vienna, Austria

2018

Suspension. Une histoire aérienne de la sculpture abstraite. 1918-2018, Palais d’Iéna, Paris, France

The Other Trans-Atlantic. Kinetic and Op Art in Eastern Europe and Latin America 1950’s - 1970s, Garage Museum of Contemporary Art, Moscow, Russia

Action <-> Reaction. 100 Years of Kinetic Art, Kunsthal , Rotterdam, Netherlands

Concrete Matters, Moderna Museet, Stockholm, Sweden

Signals, Sotheby’s Gallery S|2, London, United Kingdom

L’Aventure de la couleur. Œuvres phares du Centre Pompidou, Centre Pompidou-Metz, Metz, France

Obres obertes. L’art en moviment, 1955-1975, Fundació Catalunya - La Pedrera, Barcelona, Spain

Contesting Modernity. Informalism in Venezuela, 1955-1975, Museum of Fine Arts (MFAH), Audrey Jones Beck Building, Houston, United States

2017

L’emozione dei COLORI nell’arte, Turin Civic Gallery of Modern and Contemporary Art (GAM), Turin, Italy

Georges Pompidou et l'art. Une aventure du regard, Château de Chambord, Chambord, France

Licht und Bewegung, Kunsthalle Messmer, Riegel am Kaiserstuhl, Germany

Dialogues concrets. Carlos Cruz-Diez & la Donation Albers-Honegger, Espace de l’Art Concret, Mouans-Sartoux, France. Curator : Carlos Cruz-Diez

L’emozione dei COLORI nell’arte, Turin Civic Gallery of Modern and Contemporary Art (GAM), Turin, Italy

Georges Pompidou et l'art. Une aventure du regard, Château de Chambord, Chambord, France

Licht und Bewegung, Kunsthalle Messmer, Riegel am Kaiserstuhl, Germany

Dialogues concrets. Carlos Cruz-Diez & la Donation Albers-Honegger, Espace de l’Art Concret, Mouans-Sartoux, France. Curator : Carlos Cruz-Diez

2016

The Illusive Eye. Op Art and the Americas in the 1960s, El Museo del Barrio, New York, United States

Eye Attack. Op Art and Kinetic Art 1950-1970, Louisiana Museum of Modern Art, Humlebaek, Denmark

In the Studio, Tate Modern, London, United Kingdom

Un musée imaginé. Et si l’art disparaissait ? Trois collections européennes. Centre Pompidou, Tate, MMK, Centre Pompidou-Metz, Metz, France

Destination. Latin America, Neuberger Museum of Art (Stairway Gallery), Purchase, United States

2015

Light Show, Museum of Contemporary Art Australia (MCA), Sydney, Australia

Libertad de Expresión. The Art Museum of the Americas and Cold War Politics, Art Museum of the Americas (AMA), Organization of American States (OAS), Washington, D.C., United States

Light Show, Sharjah Art Foundation, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates

An Imagined Museum. Works from the Centre Pompidou, Tate and MMK collections, Tate Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Let's Move, La Patinoire Royale - Galerie Valérie Bach, Brussels, Belgium

2014

Radical Geometry. Modern Art of South America from the Patricia Phelps de Cisneros Collection, Royal Academy of Arts, London, United Kingdom.

Visual Deception II. Into the Future, Bunkamura Museum of Art, Tokyo, Japan.

Formes simples, Centre Pompidou-Metz, Metz, France.

Que la lumière soit !, Espace Fondation EDF, Paris, France.

2013

Homage to Denise René. Past, Present and Future of a Vision, Espace Expression, Miami, United States.

 Dynamo. Un siècle de lumière et de mouvement dans l’art. 1913-2013, Grand Palais, Paris, France.

La invención concreta. Colección Patricia Phelps de Cisneros, Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía, Madrid, Spain.

Modernités plurielles. de 1905 à 1970, Georges Pompidou National Center for Art and Culture, Paris, France.

Lightopia, Vitra Design Museum, Weil am Rhein, Germany.

Light Show, Hayward Gallery, London, United Kingdom.

2012

Néon. Who’s afraid of red, yellow and blue?, La Maison Rouge - Fondation Antoine de Galbert, Paris, France.

Suprasensorial. Experiments in Light, Color and Space, Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Washington, D.C., United States.

Fifty years of Latin American Art. Selections from the Neuberger Museum of Art, Americas Society/Council of the Americas, New York, United States.

2011

América fría. La abstracción geométrica latinoamericana (1934 - 1973), Fundación Juan March, Madrid, Spain

Gallery One, New Vision Centre, Signals and Indica, Tate Gallery, London, United Kingdom.

2010

Suprasensorial. Experiments in Light, Color and Space, The Geffen Contemporary at The Museum of Contemporary Art (MOCA), Los Angeles, United States

2007

Lo[s] cinético[s], Queen Sofia National Museum Art Centre, Madrid, Spain

2005

L'Œil moteur. Art optique et cinétique, 1950-1975, Musée d'Art Moderne et Contemporain, Strasbourg, France

2004

Inverted Utopias. Avant-Garde Art in Latin America, Museum of Fine Arts (MFAH), Houston, United States

2003

Alternating Currents, University of Essex Collection of Latin American Art and Firstsite, The Minories Art Gallery, Colchester, United Kingdom

2001

Denise René, l’intrépide. Une galerie dans l’aventure de l’art abstrait, 1944-1978, Georges Pompidou National Center for Art and Culture, Graphic Art Gallery and Gallery of the Museum, Paris, France

1993

Latin American Artists of the Twentieth Century, Museum of Modern Art (MoMA), New York, United States

1992

L'art en mouvement, Maeght Foundation, Saint-Paul-de-Vence, France

1986

Forty Years of Modern Art 1945-1985, Tate Gallery, London, United Kingdom

1967

Lumière et Mouvement, Paris Museum of Modern Art (MAM), Paris, France

1965

The Responsive Eye, Museum of Modern Art (MoMA), New York, United States

1964

Nouvelle Tendance. Propositions visuelles du mouvement international, Musée des Arts Décoratifs, Palais du Louvre, Pavillon de Marsan, Paris, France

1961

Bewogen Beweging, Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, Netherlands

Awards

2019

Presentation of Honoris Causa Doctorate posthumously to the artist Carlos Cruz-Diez, Central University of Venezuela, Caracas, Venezuela

2018

Human Rights Friendly Personality, International Solidarity for Human Rights, Miami, United States

2016

The International Trebbia Award, Trebbia Foundation, Prague, Czech Republic

2015

Turner Medal, The City University, London, United Kingdom

2014

Honorary Doctorate, Central University, Caracas, Venezuela

2012

Prize Penagos de Dibujo, Fundación Mapfre, Madrid, Spain

Rank of Officer of the National Order of the Legion of Honour, Paris, France

2011

Golden Medal, Americas Society/Council of the Americas, New York, United States

2007

Honorary Doctorate of Fine Arts, Universidad of the Andes, Mérida, Venezuela. Badge

2006

Honorary Doctorate, Simón Bolívar University, Caracas, Venezuela

2002

Rank of Commander, Order of Arts and Letters, Paris, France

1994

Rank of Commander, Order of Christopher Columbus, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic

1992

 Gold Medal, Norwegian International Print Triennial, Oslo, Norway

1986

Rank of Officer, Order of Arts and Letters, Paris, France

1981

Order Andrés Bello, First Class, Caracas, Venezuela

1971

National Art Award, National Institute of Culture and Fine Arts (INCIBA), Caracas, Venezuela

1967

International Painting Prize, IX São Paulo Biennial, São Paulo, Brazil

1966

Grand Prize, III Bienal Americana de Arte, National University of Córdoba, Faculty of Science, Córdoba, Argentina

Architectural Works

2021

Expo 2020 Dubai, France Pavilion, Dubai, United Arab Emirates

2019

Induction Chromatique Walkway, National Museum of the Republic of Kazakhstan plaza, Nur-Sultan (Astana), Kazakhstan

Induction Chromatique Walkway, Al-Balad (historic district), Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Promenade Chromatique Vienne, Museum of Modern Art, Ludwig Foundation (MUMOK), Vienna, Austria

2018

Induction Chromatique Human Rights. Article 27 Right to Culture, Miami Dade College, Miami, United States

Art Basel, Messe Basel, Basel, Switzerland

Environnement Chromatique, Parvis des Droits de l'Homme, Centre Pompidou-Metz, Metz, France

2017

Chromatic Induction Walkway SCAD 1, SCAD Museum of Art, Savannah, United States

Physichromie Trinity, Tour Trinity, Paris (La Défense), France

2016

Ambientación Cromática, Montalbán 11, Madrid, Spain

Environnement Chromatique, Palais d’Iéna, Paris, France

Physichromie Longchamp, Longchamp, Paris, France

2015

Cromoestructura, Kenex Plaza Building, Panama City, Republic of Panama

Induction Chromatique Manosque, Auditorium of the Music Academy, Eglise du Couvent des Observantins, Manosque, France

2014

Environnement Chromatique, One CityCenter’s Covington & Burling LLP hall building, Washington, D.C., United States

Couleur Additive Liverpool One, Thomas Steers Way, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Induction Chromatique à double fréquence, Edmund Gardner Dazzle Ship 14-18 NOW, Royal Albert Dock, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Cruz-Diez. Color espacial, Oscar Niemeyer International Cultural Centre, Avilés, Spain. 

2012

Physichromie Berrini One, Berrini One Building, São Paulo, Brazil

Induction Chromatique à double fréquence, Place des Victoires, Paris, France

2011

Induction Chromatique à Double Fréquence, Marlins Ballpark Stadium, Miami, United States

Transcromía, Parroquia San Norberto, Bogotá, Colombia

2010

Transchromie mécanique aléatoire, Longchamp, New York, United States

2008

Physichromie double face, Welcome Center Entrance, University of Houston, Houston, United States

2004

Ambientación Cromática, National Network of Youth and Children Orchestras of Venezuela, Caracas, Venezuela

1997

Caleidoscopio, Residence of the Venezuelan Embassy, Buenos Aires, Argentina

1994

Cilindros de Inducción Cromática por cambio de frecuencia, Silos de Molinos Dominicanos, Port, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic

Laberinto Cromovegetal, Simón Bolívar University, Caracas, Venezuela 

1992

Ambientación Cromática, Plaza de la Realidad Virtual, Venezuelan Pavilion, “The Seville Expo '92”, Seville, Spain

1991

Fisicromía Doble Faz para Madrid, Juan Carlos I Park, Madrid, Spain

1989

Induction Chromatique, La Canebière & Place Général de Gaulle, Marseille, France

1985

Chromostructure, Bolívar Hall Cultural Centre (Miranda House), London, United Kingdom

1983

Cromoestructura Vegetal, Nutibara Hill, Medellín, Colombia

1982

Fisicromía - homenaje a Don Andrés Bello, Plaza Venezuela, Caracas, Venezuela

Cromoestructura radial - Homenaje al sol, roundabout Las Trinitarias, Barquisimeto, Venezuela. 

1981

Plafond Physichromie, Covered walkway of the railway station, Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, France

1977

Ambientación Cromática, Simón Bolívar Hydroelectric Plant, Guri, Venezuela

1976

Physichromie double face, Place du Venezuela, Paris, France

1975

 Environnement chromo-cinétique, Union Bank of Switzerland (UBS) headquarters, Flurpark SBG, Zürich, Switzerland

Cilindros de Inducción Cromática, Port of La Guaira, La Guaira, Venezuela

Color Aditivo, Boulevard of Sabana Grande, Caracas, Venezuela

1974

Ambientación de Color Aditivo, Simón Bolívar International Airport, Maiquetia, Venezuela

Collections, Museums, Foundations

2020

Perez Art Museum Miami (PAMM), Miami, United States. 

Nancy and Rich Kinder building of the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, United States. 

2018

Turin Civic Gallery of Modern and Contemporary Art (GAM), Turin, Italy.

Louisiana Museum of Modern Art, Humlebaek, Denmark

2017

Georges Pompidou National Center for Art and Culture, Paris, France

2012

The Geffen Contemporary at The Museum of Contemporary Art (MOCA), Los Angeles, United States

Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Washington, D.C., United States

2009

Museum of Fine Arts (MFAH), Houston, United States

2008

Museum of Modern Art (MoMA), New York, United States

2004

Museo de la Estampa y del Diseño Carlos Cruz-Diez (MEDI), Caracas, Venezuela

1994

National Art Gallery (GAN), Caracas, Venezuela

1989

Musée d'art contemporain de Lyon, Lyon, France

1988

Caracas Museum of Contemporary Art, Caracas, Venezuela

1981

Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, Montreal, Canada

1978

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), Paris, France

1977

Tehran Museum Of Contemporary Art, Tehran, Iran

1976

Tate Modern, London, United Kingdom 

1975

Bogotá Museum of Modern Art (MAMBO), Bogotá, Colombia

1973

Colección de Arte del Banco de la República (Centro Cultural de Bogotá y Museo de Arte Miguel Urrutia), Bogotá, Colombia

1970

Fonds national d’art contemporain (FNAC) du Centre national d’art contemporain (CNAC), Paris, France

1968

Museum of Modern Art, Ludwig Foundation (MUMOK), Vienna, Austria

1967

Museum of Contemporary Art Australia (MCA), The University of Sydney (JW Power Collection), Sydney, Australia

1965

Musée d’art contemporain de Montreal (MACM), Montreal, Canada

Paris Museum of Modern Art (MAM), Paris, France

Museum of Fine Arts, Caracas, Venezuela

Museum of Modern Art (MAM), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Neue Pinakothek, Munich, Germany

Latin American Art Museum of Buenos Aires (MALBA) - Costantini Foundation, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Casa de las Américas, Havana, Cuba

 Art Museum of the Americas (AMA), Organization of American States (OAS), Washington, D.C., United States

 Satoru Sato Art Museum, Tome, Japan

 Museum of Fine Arts Bern, Bern, Switzerland